1. 定语从句：由关系代词 who, whom, whose, that, which; 关系副词 when, where, why 引导。
1. The death notices tell us about people who have died during the week.
2. The man (whom) you spoke to just now is my friend.
3. The building whose lights are on is beautiful.
4. Please find a place which we can have a private talk in.
5. The knee is the joint where the thighbone meets the large bone of the lower leg.
6. He still remembers the day when he went to school.
7. It is no need telling us the reason why you didn't finish it in time.
8. He has three sons, two of whom died in the war.
9. Mr. Smith, whose wife is a clerk, teaches us English.
10. In the Sunday paper there are comics, which children enjoy.
A.all, nothing, anything, a few, one做先行词指物时
C.先行词前有 the only, the first, the last, the next, the very等词修饰时，引导词只能用that。
D.当先行词是 anyone, anybody, everyone, everybody, someone, somebody时，后面要用who或whom;
● All that glitters is not gold. 闪光的并非都是金子。
3. as 引导定语从句
在此类定语从句中，as常与主语中作为其先行词的such, the same或as联用构成，“such... as”，“the same... as”和“as ...as”句型，可代替先行词。
例如：We hope to get such a tool as he is using. 我们希望得到他正在用的那种工具。
例如：As is reported, a foreign delegation will visit the city.
① 原因：because, since, now that(既然)as, for, this reason....
② 结果：so that, so, therefore, consequently, so as to, as a result ....
③ 时间：after, before, when, while, as, until, as soon as, since, by the time, once, lately, presently, shortly after, currently, at present, nowadays ...
④ 条件：if, only if., once, unless, in the event (that), in case (that), provided that, on the condition that, etc.
⑤ 让步：though, although, even though(if), no matter what / how / when→ whatever / however / whenever ....
⑥ 目的：in order that, in order to, to,
⑦ 比较：than, as ... as, by comparison(相比较)，by contrast(相对照)....
1. How some mammals came to live in the sea is not know.(主语从句)
2. The attorney told his client that they had little chance of winning the case.(宾语从句)
3. The problem is what we'll do next.(表语从句)
4. We have no idea that he has come back.(同位语从句)
《新概念英语》 第三册第一课有这样一个句子： When reports came into London zoo that a wild puma had been spotted forty-five miles south of London, they were not taken seriously.
在这里，a wild puma had been spotted forty-five miles south of London就是同位语从句，它本来应该放在 “reports”后面，这里却被放在了谓语成分 came into London zoo的后面，目的是让句型显得更为稳重。
I was greatly shocked when I heard the news that his father died yesterday.
We have to face the fact that the weather is unexpectedly bad.
● 同位语一般由that引导，但也可以用关系代词which, who, what和关系副词when, where, why, how或 whether 引导。
There arouse the question whether we could win the game.
I have no idea howto explain it.
on the assumption(在……前提下)，
on the ground(由于……原因)，
on the condition that(在……条件下)，
with the exception(有……例外)
owing to the fact(由于……事实);
on the understanding(基于……理解);
The young lady promised to marry the old man on the condition that he bought her a villa.
An idea came to him that he might write to her to ask more information about the matter.
I got information from my friend that there will be a marvelous American movie "Titanic".
简单记忆：定语从句的引导词 that 或 which在句子中用作主语或宾语，而同位语从句的引导词that只起连接主句和从句之作用，不用作任何成分。
示例：I've got an answer that A is right. (同位语从句，that 不做成分)
I've got an answer that surprised me a lot.(定语从句，that做定语从句的主语)
Bill Clinton, the president of America, came to China to pay an official visit in 1998.
Lu Xun, one of the greatest essayists in China, played an overwhelmingly important role in Chinese literature history.
I'm crazy about the game, playing baseball.
Going to concert, that sounds a great idea.
The problem what to do next remains unsolved.
Her claim to have finished his work is nothing but a white lie.
All the workers, young or old, should be treated equally.
Young man, short or tall, should have the right to take the opportunity.
1.namely, that it is, that is to say(也就是说), in other words(换句话说), or, for short 表示等同关系。
2.such as, say, so to speak(譬如说), including(包括), for instance(或 for example (e.g. / eg)，表示举例和列举关系。
3.especially, mostly, chiefly, or better, in particular, particularly表示突出重点，(在高难度阅读中表示后面的部分为更重要或更突出的部分，是出题的关键点。)
1. ________ all behavior is learned behavior is a basic assumption of social scientists.
A. Nearly B. That nearly
C. It is nearly D. When nearly
2. The people at the party were worried about Janet because no one was aware ________ she had gone.
A. where that B. of where
C. of the place where D. the place
3. — Susan hasn't written us for a long time. — What do you suppose________ to her?
A. that happened B. happened
C. to happen D. having happened
4. — May I have the loan? ________ you offer good security.
A. But B. Unless C. Provided D. But for
5. Gorillas are quiet animals, ________ they are able to make about twenty different sounds.
A. how B. in spite of C. because of D. even though
6. The little White House in warm springs was the Georgia home of President Franklin-D. Roosevelt ________ there on April 12, 1945.
A. who died B. died C. while died D. he died
7. Essentially, a theory is an abstract, symbolic representation of ________ reality.
A. what it is conceived B. that is conceived
C. what is conceived to be D. that is being conceived of
8. Seeds usually germinate ________ the temperature is favorable.
A. if B. whereas C. as a result D. in consequences
9. Francis Preston Blair. Jr, ________ born in Kentucky, lived and practiced in Missouri.
A. was B. he was C. although D. who he was
10. ________, work songs often exhibit the song culture of a people in a fundamental form.
A. They occur where they are B. Occurring where
C. Where they occur D. Where do they occur
If + did / were + ..., ... would
could + do (动词原形)
If I were you, I would go abroad at once. (I am not you.)
If he knew it now, he could help me. (He doesn't know it now.)
If + had done + ..., ... would (might) have done ...
If I had known your telephone number yesterday, I would have phoned you.
(I didn't know your telephone number.)
If you had come here a little earlier just now, you might have met her.
(You didn't come here earlier.)
(1) If + should + v., ... would + v.
If it should rain tomorrow, you could stay at home.
If I should fail, what should I do?
(2) If + did / were to + v ..., would + v.
If the sun were to rise in the west, I would lend you the money.
If you finished it in 3 minutes, I would give you my car.
● 下列动词后的“宾语从句”中需要用虚拟形式，即should + 动词原形，shoud在美国英语中要省略(TOEFL语法考点)。此类常见的动词有：order, ask, decide, demand, require, recommend, suggest(建议)insist(坚决要求)，advise, etc.
例句：He suggested that we (should) help them with English.
The teacher ordered that the homework (should) be finished within half an hour.
● 下列名词后的同位语从句中要用“should + 动词原形”(should可省去)的虚拟。
suggestion, order, request, demand, importance, proposal.
He made a suggestion that we (should) have a fancy dress party.
I think it is a thing of importance that it (should) be done soon.
● It is / was important / necessary / natural / essential / advisable / strange / surprising, ect. + that +主语+ should + v.
It is strange that you should say such a thing.
It was important that you should tell me all the information.
● wish后的宾语从句中，as if 后的状语从句中，须用下列的虚拟形式：
主 + wish+ (that) + 主 + did / were(指现在)
I wish that I met my uncle now.
I wish I had met my uncle yesterday.
I wish I could meet my uncle tomorrow.
● It is (high) time that ... + did / were ...
It is time that you went to bed.
● would rather that ... + did / were ...
I would rather that you were not here now.
● would sooner that ... + did / were ...
I would sooner that you got up earlier.
I would sooner that you were not my brother.
1. I ________ he had taught me the word, but he didn't.
A. believe B. hope C. wish D. think
2. The man in charge recommends that this matter ________ at the meeting. A. would be discussed B. will be discussed C. be discussed D. may be discussed
3. It is raining now, otherwise we ________ go out play.
A. could B. can C. may D. will
4. ________ he come late, give him the message.
A. Had B. Should C. Would D. Did
5. Hadn't my car broke down, I ________ the train.
A. would have caught B. might catch C. could catch D. would catch
6. I would have helped him if I had time, but I ________.
A. haven't B. had C. didn't D. wouldn't
7. The dam was built in time to protect the inhabitants from the flood; ________.
A. otherwise the damage would be beyond measure.
B. the damage, otherwise, should be very great.
C. the damage could have been very serious otherwise.
D. the damage caused, therefore, many of them homeless.
8. It is natural that an employee ________ his work on time.
A. finishes B. finish C. can finish D. finishs
9. I would go abroad but that I ________ poor.
A. am B. was C. shall be D. were
10. Don't act as if you ________ the only pebble on the beach.
A. are B. were C. have been D. would be
★ 新概念英语第三册第35课:Justice was done
★ 新概念英语第三册第57课:Back in the old country