英语中，为了避免不必要的重复，经常用so, not, to, do, does 代替前面出现的动词或相关内容。
如：He translated the article better than I did. (did代替wrote it)
— Do you think she is clever?
— I think so. (so代替 she is clever)
(1) 从上两例中看出，do / does / did 代替动词。
(2) "so 与 not" 代替某个词、短语、句子等，通常用于hope, think, believe, expect, suppose, be afraid, fear, imagine, etc后作宾语。
E.g. — Is it correct?
— I'm afraid not. (not correct)
(3) "to" 用作不定式，常跟随下列动词：want, mean, hope, expect, refuse, seem, intend, be, afraid, etc.
E.g. I asked him to go to the party, but he refused to. (go to the party)
(4) "do so, do that, do it" 用来代替动态动词，而不能代静态动词。
Eg. — He gave up studying English.
— Why did he do so? (= give up studying English)
— The dish tastes nice.
— Yes, so it does. (tastes nice)
(此句不能用it does it 或 it does so, 因taste属静态动词。)
E.g. — He is thinking of buying a car?
— Is he?(这里，“thinking of buying a car”被省略了。)
— Will he come back in time?
— Perhaps.(省略了he will come back in time.)
1. — Shall I wake you up tomorrow? — Yes, ________ .
A. please do B. you shall
C. you will D. you may
2. I think records are often ________ an actual performance.
A. as good as or better than B. as good or better than
C. like good or better than D. as good as any other
3. — If he doesn't come to work, he may be fired. — Surely he isn't so foolish ________ not to realize that.
A. so B. and C. but D. as
4. — Don't you think Alan's health has been ruined by smoking? — Yes, he told me ________ himself.
A. the fact B. this thing C. It D. so
5. — Will you go home tomorrow evening? — No, I'm going to a lecture, or at least, I'm planning ________ .
A. on B. to C. so D. It
6. — I slipped on the stairs, I think my arm is broken. — Oh! I ________ .
A. do not hope so B. do not hope C. hope not so D. hope not
7. California relies mainly on income from fruit crops, and ________ .
A. Florida also B. Florida too
C. Florida is as well D. so does Florida
8. — Have you been here long? — ________ .
A. No, not very B. Not much
C. Yes, only little D. No, only yesterday
9. — You look happy today, Mary. — I like my new dress and mother ________, too.
A. does B. likes C. is D. do
10. — So you are lost, little boy. Why didn't you hang on to your mother's skirt?
— ________, but I couldn't reach it.
A. I hanged to B. I did to
C. I didn't hang to D. I tried to
1.副词如：in, out, down, there, here, off, over, away, etc. 句子倒装。(完全倒装，但主语不能是代词)
Down jumped the murderer from the tenth floor.
In came Miss Green.
Away she went!(她走了!)
Here you are!(你在这儿!)
2.only + 副词(介词短语)位于句首，句子要倒装。
Only then did he realize that he was mistaken.
Only by working hard can we succeed in doing anything.
3.well, so, often, such, few, little 放于句首，句子形成倒装。
So fine was the weather that we all went out lying in the sun.
Well did I know him and well did he know me.
4.否定词或具有否定意义的词及词组用在句首时，句子须倒装。此类词有： neither，nor，hardly，scarcely， rarely，seldom，not，never，not only，barely，at no time，nowhere等。
e.g. — Jack could not swim.
— Neither could Tom.
Never have I seen such a good movie.
Rich as he is, he spends a cent on charity.
Try as he does, he never seems able to do the work beautifully.
May you make greater progress! (愿你取得更大进步!)
7.在虚拟条件句中，连词if省略时，句型要倒装，即将were, had, should等词提到句首。
Were I you, I would go abroad to take advanced study.
Should he come tomorrow, he would help us to settle the problem.
Much as we may pride ourselves on our good taste, we are no longer free to choose the things we want.
(NCE Book III Lesson 26)
1. Not until the mid-nineteenth-century discovery of vast deposits of borate's in the Majave Desert ________ relatively common.
A. borax became
B. did borax become
C. and borax become
D. borax's becoming
2. ________ received law degrees as today.
A. Never so many women have
B. Never have so many women
C. The women aren't ever
D. Women who have never
3. ________ the Bob's belongings that he carried them in a bundle slung over his shoulders.
A. Were so few B. Few were so
C. So few were D. They were so few
4. Only after a baby seal is pushed into the sea by its mother ________ to swim.
A. how will it learn B. will it learn how
C. it will learn how D. and it learns how
5. Not only ________ a promise, but he also kept it.
A. did he made B. he made
C. did he make D. he makes
6. Nowhere in the world ________ .
A. travelers can buy so much beauty for so little as in Hawaii.
B. no one can buy so much beauty for so little money as Hawaii.
C. so much beauty can be bought for so little money in Hawaii.
D. can travelers buy so much beauty for so little money as in Hawaii.
7. No sooner ________ gone home than it began to rain heavily.
A. had I B. have I C. I had D. I have
8. Not for a moment ________ the truth of your story.
A. he has doubted B. he doubts
C. did he doubt D. he did doubt
9. ________ succeed in doing anything.
A. Only by working hard we can
B. By only working hard we can
C. Only by working hard can we
D. Only we can work hard
10. Never before in similar circumstances ________ .
A. a British Prime Minister had refused to step down.
B. did a British Prime Minister have refused to step down.
C. a British Prime Minister did have refused to step down.
D. had a British Prime Minister refused to step down.
11. People might avoid many accidents ________ these methods been adopted before.
A. that B. were C. have D. had
12. ________arose the problem that the boy will never overcome the great difficulties.
A. It B. This C. Here D. Those
a lovely girl, the naughty boy
The dish tastes delicious.
The music sounds sweet.
The milk went bad.
He looked me up and down carefully.
I tasted the soup slowly to see whether it was salty.
a river navigable(一条可通航的河)
person responsible(负责人)注意：responsible person(有责任心的人)
the best way possible(尽可能好的办法)
the number necessary(必要的数量)
the people present(在场的人)
示例：His mother has been ill for a long time.
He is sick for a couple of days.(他病两三天了)
He is a sick person.(他是个病人。)
The old man is alone in the house.(老人一个人在家。)
The teacher is alive with enthusiasm.(这位老师热情洋溢。)
He is asleep in his mother's arms.(他在母亲的怀抱中睡着了。)
I have been aware of the difficulty.(我已经意识到了困难。)
1. The Chinese food served in American restaurant is not bad but I prefer ________.
A. Chinese food authentically B. Chinese authentic food
C. food Chinese authentically D. authentic Chinese food
2. ________ lessons were not difficult.
A. Our first few short English
B. Our few first short English
C. Our few first English short
D. Few our first English short
3. — Do you think that the Labor bill will be passed? — Oh, yes, it's ________ that it will.
A. almost surely B. very likely
C. near positive D. quite certainly
4. — Have you traveled much? — No, I have done ________ traveling.
A. few B. little C. small D. less
5. — I was very busy. — Did you really work hard ________?
A. all day B. all the day
C. all the day long D. all of day long
6. — Do you need anything from the store? — ________ and some cheddar cheese.
A. Only a French bread loaf
B. A French bread loaf only
C. Only a loaf of French bread
D. A loaf of French bread only
7. According to the information, the newly-constructed highway is said to be ________.
A. lengthy twenty miles B. length about twenty miles
C. about twenty miles long D. in twenty miles of length
8. Mr. Smith has done ________ business here.
A. a lot of B. a number of
C. much D. lots
9. — Are you helping to organize the political convention? — I'm in charge of welcoming the ________.
A. out-of-town visitors B. visitors from outside of town
C. visitors out-of-town D. outside town visitors
10. — Does Jane have brown hair? — Yes, In fact, it's quitesimilar in shape ________ yours.
A. as B. with C. like D. to
★ 新概念英语第三册第35课:Justice was done
★ 新概念英语第三册第57课:Back in the old country